How deep and wide do footings need to be?

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In general, there are two types of foundations. There are foundation walls and foundation floors. Foundation walls are the structure which supports the rest of the building while foundation floors support only one or a few rooms at most.

These two types of foundations have different requirements when it comes to the type of materials used.

Foundation Walls:

These are the structures which hold up the rest of your building. They usually consist of brick, stone, stucco or other earthy material. They’re made out of bricks and stones because they provide strength and durability.

You can use any kind of construction material, but the most common ones are bricks and stones. The main thing to keep in mind with these kinds of foundations is that they must not crack or crumble under heavy loads.

Foundation flooring consists of wood, tile, linoleum or similar materials. Wood provides stability and durability while linoleum offers good grip qualities. If you want to build a small home, then foundation walls would be the best choice since they don’t require any additional support from above.

The main thing with foundation walls is that they must not crack or break due to weathering or other forces. You can use many kinds of materials for foundation walls such as stone, brick, stucco, concrete block etc. But remember that these materials will eventually wear down over time and cracks may form due to their age.

Tile, on the other hand, is prone to cracking and breaking. The type of material that you use should depend on the kind of surface area that you wish to cover. Wood is cheapest while tile is by far the most expensive in addition to being high-maintenance.

How to calculate a concrete footing:

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The best way to figure out how much your footing will cost is to call a few masonry contractors and ask for their estimates. So it is important that you inspect your house every year to check for cracks or other signs of wear and tear. Foundation flooring can be made from wood, linoleum, or any other similar materials.

The most important thing is that they should not rot.

How wide do footings need to be?

Unlike basement floors, the width of the footings will not affect anything structurally. It is more for decorative purposes than anything else. These contractors should provide you with a quote immediately over the phone.

If they don’t, then this is a red flag that they will give you an inflated estimate after they come out to your property. A masonry contractor should also have no problem providing you with the square footage of your house if you need it because this makes the math easy for them as well.

You can also get an estimate using the “rule of thumb” method. If you are building a one-story house then the minimum width of the footing is equal to the width of your wall. However, if you are building a two-story house then the minimum width should be 1 and 1/2 times the width of your wall.

How deep do footings need to be?

Since you want your house to be stable, it is important that the bottom of your footing is at least 8 inches below the frost line. In certain areas this can be deeper due to variations in the soil. You should make sure that your masonry contractor is aware of what the frost line is in your area before he constructs your footing.

How to calculate footing size:

It is always a good idea to have a professional inspect your house before you start building on it. Building inspectors are very familiar with local construction codes and can spot potential problems with your home that you may miss. They can also tell you about any ordinances you may need to follow or permits you may need to obtain before you start building.

You should also call your local utility and pipeline companies and let them know that you will be digging on your property. This will allow them to mark their lines in advance and move them if necessary. They will also inform you of any other procedures that you may need to follow such as notifying your local water or electric company.

Excavation and Footings

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The next step in building your home is excavation which involves digging out dirt to form a foundation. This requires heavy equipment, workers with special training, and experience. A foreman or superintendent will oversee the actual building process.

You can either hire this person individually or you can hire a general contractor who will take care of hiring the necessary workers and equipment for you.

The advantage of hiring a general contractor is that they will have a crew and all the necessary equipment to get the job done. However, this can be expensive and if the general contractor is not well-respected, it can cause more conflict with trades people who believe they should have gotten the job. If you are on a tight budget or you want to have more control over the building process, then hiring an individual is an option.

If you decide to hire an individual, then you will want to find the best “foreman” or “superintendent” that you can afford. A foreman or superintendent is an individual who has worked his way up from being a laborer all the way to the top of the responsibility ladder. While many of these men (and they are almost always men) are very capable, this is still part of the “pecking order” of the blue-collar world so most of these men will be at least a little full of themselves.

You need to be able to find one who will respect you and your wishes. These men are highly experienced and will expect to be paid well, but if you can’t afford one then you may have to settle for a journeyman who has not yet attained supervisory status.

Depending upon the size of the crew you hire, you may need to hire multiple foremen.

Now that you have your crew, it is time to start digging. The first thing they will do is put down “shoring” which basically amounts to nailing together some boards to make a temporary wall so that the side of the hole doesn’t cave in on itself. This step is necessary before they start digging because every once in a while there could be something important (such as a water or gas line) that you need to know about before you wreck your basement.

While your crew is doing this, you should go around and look for things that might hinder the building of your home such as tree roots or big rocks.

If you find any obstacles, then you need to move them yourself since your workers are busy with other tasks and can’t spare the time to do it. While you are doing this, one of the crew will be there with a backhoe digging the trench for your sewer and water lines. You should check on him every once in a while to make sure he is digging in the right place.

In some cases, you might not even need a crew since the sewer line is close enough to the surface that you can just shovel out the dirt yourself and move the big rocks since the machine can easily handle the smaller ones. You should still have someone check for obstacles such as tree roots and water lines.

You might be wondering why you aren’t going down into the hole to do this yourself since you are getting a break from the office. There are two reasons for this. The first is that a foreman (or superintendent) is supposed to direct his crew from the top, not dig side by side with them.

The second reason is safety.

While you probably wouldn’t mind getting a little dirty and possibly risking a scrape or bruise, there are dangers that your workers will be exposed to that you won’t (such as cave-ins). If something unexpected happens, you want to make sure your crew is covered as far as insurance is concerned. Even if nothing does happen, you still need to be around in case something unexpected does come up.

As your crew digs, the sewer and water lines will get laid. Since you have been checking up on them, there really shouldn’t be any surprises here (such as water mains). If you hadn’t been looking out for your workers, the crew would have broken the water main and you would be looking at several days of work in order to repair it before they could continue.

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With this done, your crew can begin digging the actual hole for your home. Just like before, you should be keeping an eye on things. You might even want to bring in another crew to do the digging and focus on making sure everything is done properly.

As you oversee the work, something interesting happens. As your workers dig further down, they suddenly hit bedrock. This isn’t necessarily a problem since your workers are going to blast through it with high explosives.

The problem is that you find out there is a slight design change that needs to be made.

In order to get through the bedrock, your crew is going to have to change the location of the basement’s entrance. Currently, it was planned to enter through the side of the house and go straight down into the basement. Now it looks like you will have to make it so that it enters in the back and goes straight down since the bedrock is at a slant.

This isn’t too big of a deal, but it is going to inconvenience you since you are going to have to buy a slightly different model house and move the entrance. The other thing that isn’t a problem is that due to the blast, you might have a slight S-curve in your basement hallway if you don’t plan accordingly.

Either way, your house is going to be structurally sound once you are done with everything.

With that settled, you call in a favor to one of your old schoolmates who is a supervisor at the local mining company. Since your cement company isn’t officially open yet, he agrees to give you the explosives for cheap (the blasting cap and dynamite are the most expensive part anyway). Your workers are glad to have jobs since the current boom is nearly over.

It is a little more dangerous for them, but they don’t seem to mind and know that you and they are doing the job no one else wants to.

The last thing to do is the paperwork. You were dreading this since you hate sitting in your office doing nothing, but you need to get it out of the way since it needs to be done.

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After several days of filling out forms and other things, your company is an official independent company. You can’t believe you are actually doing this. You think you might have gone a little mad spending several days sitting in your office doing nothing but filling out forms, but the stress of the potentially failing business got to you and when you got the insane idea for the underground expansion you decided to go through with it.

Your family is happy you didn’t go bankrupt and lose the house, but they aren’t exactly jumping for joy over your new plans. Your mother tries to talk you out of it, your sister just seems uninterested and your brother is too young to really understand what is going on. Fortunately, your father realizes that this is something that you are going to go through with whether he likes it or not, so he decides to help you out in any way he can.

Over the course of several months, work on your new bomb shelter begins. As it nears completion, you start to get civilians interested in it. Many have heard about the project and are understandably very curious about what exactly is going on.

When people see that it’s a bomb shelter and that you are taking everyone in the area who wants to enter, they don’t seem to have a problem with it – after all it would be unfair to deny them protection from the horrors above.

You feel a little odd having so many people in your house every day, but your family also knows that this is for the best and there isn’t much that can be done about it anyway. Eventually, the work on the bomb shelter is completed and you are ready to move in, but what is this? The military has approached you with a proposal…

]You have the best bomb shelter in the city and you are employing several people to maintain and operate it. It doesn’t seem unreasonable that you would be able to ask for some favors. Furthermore, this is a great way to help out your company since workers earn more money working on government projects.

Your father thinks this is a great idea since he has always been a bit of a patriot and would love to see his son working with the military. Your mother isn’t happy with the idea, but decides that your father can take care of your brother if anything happens to her. The next day you sign up for the duration of the war and are sent to a camp to train soldiers.

You work hard and prove yourself to be an above average marksman. Your commanding officers pick up on this and assign you to a sniper detachment. You feel a little odd killing people at such a long range – most of your targets are over a kilometer away – but you do your job and take every shot as if it were life or death.

After about a year of service, you save the life of one of your superior officers. He is a very honorable man and once the war is over he makes sure that you get your contract paid for completely and also gets you a good job at one of the government schools. You live the rest of your days as a history teacher.

You never quite forget about what you had to do to survive during the war, but you are thankful that you didn’t completely lose yourself in the process.

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