How To Attach Floor Joists To A Beam:
1) First of all, you need to determine if your floor joists are going to be attached directly or not. If they will be attached directly then you have two options. You can either use a screwdriver (or other small tool) and drill holes into the wall where the screws will go through and secure them with nails or bolts. Or you can use a nail gun and drill holes in the wall where the nails will go through and secure them with screws.
2) If your floor joists are going to be attached to the wall then you have three options. You can either use a hammer and chisel method which involves drilling out small holes in each side of the joists so that you can drive nails into them. Then you just fasten the floor joists onto the wall using screws. Alternatively, you can use a hammer and screwdriver method which involves drilling out small holes in each side of the joists so that you can drive screws into them. Then you simply fasten the floor joists onto the wall using screws.
3) Finally, if your floor joists are going to be attached to a sill plate then there is only one option available. You can either use a screwdriver and drill holes into the sheet of plywood, making sure that the holes are aligned with the joists and then fasten them using screws.
You should always check over your work to make sure that everything is securely attached. Be aware that floor joists are not normally very heavy, but they can still become deadly projectiles if they come loose during an earthquake. Always err on the side of caution. Your walls may not always be perfectly plumb (vertical), but that doesn’t matter because you can easily hammer them into place later on.
Floor Joist Hangers:
1) Joist hangers are metal products that are used to secure wooden floor joists to beams and other members so that they don’t sag over time and also make it easier to secure them to the subfloor. They are shaped in an “L” form and their job is to bear some of the weight of the wood that has been attached to them.
2) You have to make a decision whether you are going to use hangers or just secure the floor joists directly to the beam. It is much easier (and often just as safe) to use hangers, but it does depend on what type of beam you have and where it is in relation to your floor joists. If your joists run perpendicular to the beam then it is easy to secure them directly using hangers. Just make sure that you have enough of them. If the beam is close to the middle of the joists then four should be enough, but if it is near a wall then you should use six.
If your joists run parallel with the beam then it can be more difficult to secure them using hangers. However, it is still possible as long as the beam itself has hangers attached to it. If it does then you can secure your joists directly to them using screws or nails. If it doesn’t have any hangers on it then you are going to have to add some. You need to use metal L-shaped joist hangers that you can screw into the sides of the beam.
You need enough hangers to cover at least 2/3 of the length of each joist.
You should always screw the hangers directly into the beam and then secure the floor joists onto them using nails or screws. Don’t rely on the adhesive quality of the nails/screws themselves as they will not be strong enough to hold everything together, especially if there is a lot of weight bearing down on them.
Floor Joist Girders:
1) Floor joist girders are a good way of making your floor very strong and also give you more room to work when installing the floorboards themselves. These girders are long pieces of wood (usually 2″ x 6″) that run perpendicular across your floor joists. You have to make sure that they are evenly spaced out along the entire room and then nail them directly through the middle of the joists.
2) You have to be very careful whilst doing this because if you miss then you might miss the joist completely and just end up with a hole in your newly laid laminate floor. This is a big no, no and can invalidate your insurance and you definitely don’t want that to happen.
When you have secured all of the joists you then need to start adding the subfloor. The subfloor is what the actual floor boards are going to be resting on and it provides a comfortable and even surface for people to walk on.
You need to measure how big your room is going to be in order for you to accurately work out how much subflooring you need. You then need to cut the pieces to size using a handsaw or a power tool if you have one available.
Sources & references used in this article:
- Blocking anchor for attachment of a bridge between adjacent floor joists (JM Little – US Patent 6,536,179, 2003 – Google Patents)
- Floor joist and support system therefor (LR Daudet, GS Ralph, EL Ponko – US Patent 6,301,854, 2001 – Google Patents)
- Water shield reinforcing member for floor joists (MJ Patey – US Patent 5,280,692, 1994 – Google Patents)
- Joist hanger (GD Ratliff Jr – US Patent 3,623,755, 1971 – Google Patents)
- Floor frame structural support assembly and a method of making the same (JF Wick – US Patent 6,457,291, 2002 – Google Patents)